Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr icon

Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr

Реклама:



Download 445 b.
TitleClostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr
Date conversion01.12.2012
Size445 b.
TypeDocuments
Source



Clostridium botulinum

  • Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile GPR

  • Source: Soils, sediments, intestinal tracts of fish/mammals, gills and viscera of crabs and other shellfish

  • Illness: Intoxication (heat-labile neurotoxin)

  • Symptoms: Weakness, vertigo, double vision, difficulty in speaking, swallowing and breathing, respiratory paralysis

  • Foods: Semi-preserved seafood, improperly canned foods

  • Transmission: Spores present in raw foods

  • Control: Proper canning, aw <0.93, pH <4.7



Clostridium perfringens

  • Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, nonmotile GPR

  • Source: Soil, dust, intestinal tract of animals and humans

  • Illness: Infection (toxin released on sporulation)

  • Symptoms: Intense abdominal cramps and diarrhea

  • Foods: Temperature abuse of prepared foods such as meats, meat products, and gravy

  • Transmission: Spores present in raw foods

  • Control: Proper time/temperature control; preventing cross-contamination of cooked foods



Bacillus cereus

  • Bacteria: Facultatively aerobic, spore-forming, motile GPR

  • Source: Soil, dust, raw foods

  • Illness: 1) diarrheal type (infection, heat-labile toxin); 2) emetic type (intoxication, heat-stable toxin)

  • Symptoms: 1) profuse watery diarrhea, abdominal pain; 2) vomiting, nausea

  • Foods: 1) vegetables, salads, meats, casseroles; 2) rice and pasta

  • Transmission: Spores present in raw foods

  • Control: time/temperature; reheat cooked foods to >165o F



Brucella abortis, B. suis

  • Bacteria: Aerobic, nonmotile, GNR

  • Source: Domestic and wild animals

  • Illness: Infection (undulant fever)

  • Symptoms: Sweats, chills, weakness, aches, joint pains

  • Foods: Raw milk, infected meat

  • Transmission: Infected animals

  • Control: Pasteurize milk, cook meats



Campylobacter jejuni

  • Bacteria: Microaerophilic, motile GNR

  • Source: Intestines of poultry, livestock, domestic animals; streams and ponds

  • Illness: Infection (gastroenteritis)

  • Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, weakness, fever

  • Foods: undercooked chicken & hamburger, raw milk & clams

  • Transmission: Contaminated foods & water; cross-contamination; person to person

  • Control: Proper cooking, proper hand and equipment washing, sanitary food handling practices



Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7

  • Bacteria: Facultative anaerobic, motile or nonmotile GNR

  • Source: Intestines of animals and poultry

  • Illness: Hemorrhagic colitis (HC), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)

  • Symptoms: HC) diarrhea & vomiting, HUS) diarrhea & acute renal failure, TTP) diarrhea, GI hemorrhage, blood clots in brain

  • Foods: Meat, poultry, potatoes, raw milk

  • Transmission: Cross-contamination, sewage pollution of coastal waters

  • Control: Proper cooking, temperature control, preventing cross-contamination, proper personal hygiene



Listeria monocytogenes

  • Bacteria: Microaerophilic, motile, GPR

  • Source: Widespread in the environment

  • Illness: Infection

  • Symptoms: Mild flu-like symptoms to meningitis, abortions, septicemia, and death

  • Foods: Coleslaw, raw milk, Mexican style soft cheese, smoked mussels

  • Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked food, contaminated raw foods

  • Control: Proper cooking, preventing cross-contamination, pasteurizing milk



Salmonella spp.

  • Bacteria: Facultative anaerobic, motile, GNR

  • Source: Intestine of mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles

  • Illness: Infection (gastroenteritis)

  • Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever

  • Foods: Poultry, poultry salads, meats, dairy products, egg products

  • Transmission: Cross-contamination, human contamination, sewage pollution of coastal waters

  • Control: Proper cooking, temperature control, preventing cross-contamination, personal hygiene



Shigella spp.

  • Bacteria: Facultative anaerobic, nonmotile, GNR

  • Source: Intestine of humans and primates

  • Illness: Infection (gastroenteritis)

  • Symptoms: Mild diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, severs fluid loss

  • Foods: Water, milk, salads, lettuce, watermelon, beans, spaghetti

  • Transmission: Contamination from workers, sewage pollution of coastal waters, contamination of seafood after harvest

  • Control: Personal hygiene, preventing human waste contamination of water supplies, preventing ill people or carriers from working with food



Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus

  • Bacteria: Facultative aerobic, nonmotile, GPC

  • Source: Humans and animals, air, dust, sewage

  • Illness: Intoxication (gastroenteritis)

  • Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, watery or bloody diarrhea, fever

  • Foods: Meats, poultry, eggs, dairy products, seafood

  • Transmission: Contamination of food by workers or equipment

  • Control: Time/temperature control, personal hygiene, sanitation



Vibrio cholerae

  • Bacteria: Facultative aerobic, motile, curved GNR

  • Source: Naturally occurring in estuaries, bays and brackish water

  • Illness: Infection (cholera or gastroenteritis)

  • Symptoms: 01: watery diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps; non-01: Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever

  • Foods: Molluscan shellfish

  • Transmission: Contaminated water, cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of contaminated raw seafood

  • Control: Proper cooking, preventing cross-contamination, Harvesting from approved waters



Vibrio parahaemolyticus

  • Bacteria: Facultative aerobic, motile, curved GNR

  • Source: Naturally occurring in estuaries and other coastal areas throughout the world

  • Illness: Infection (gastroenteritis)

  • Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache

  • Foods: Raw, improperly cooked, or cooked and contaminated fish and shellfish

  • Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood

  • Control: Proper cooking, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood



Vibrio vulnificus

  • Bacteria: Facultative aerobic, motile, curved GNR

  • Source: Naturally occurring marine bacterium

  • Illness: Infection (wounds, gastroenteritis, septicemia)

  • Symptoms: Skin lesions, septic shock, fever, chills, nausea

  • Foods: Raw oysters, clams and crabs

  • Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood

  • Control: Proper cooking, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood



Yersinia enterocolitica

  • Bacteria: Facultative aerobic, motile, GNR

  • Source: Soil, water, domesticated and wild animals

  • Illness: Infection (gastroenteritis)

  • Symptoms: Diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever

  • Foods: Meats, oysters, fish, raw milk

  • Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked food, poor sanitation, time/temperature abuse

  • Control: Preventing cross-contamination, proper sanitation and food handling practices



Viruses

  • Hepatitis A and E

  • Norwalk virus group



Hepatitis A

  • Source: Human intestine

  • Illness: Infection

  • Symptoms: Fever, malaise, nausea, abdominal discomfort, jaundice

  • Foods: Cold cuts, sandwiches, fruits, fruit juices, milk and milk products, vegetables, salads, shellfish, iced drinks

  • Transmission: Fecal contamination of food or water

  • Control: Proper cooking, preventing cross-contamination, good sanitation, employee hygiene



Norwalk Virus Group

  • Source: Human intestines

  • Illness: Infection

  • Symptoms: Self-limiting and mild; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever

  • Foods: Salad ingredients, raw or insufficiently cooked clams and oysters

  • Transmission: Fecal contamination of food or water

  • Control: Proper cooking, good sanitation, employee hygiene, preventing cross-contamination



Anisakis simplex

  • Parasite: Nematode (herring worm)

  • Source: Raw or undercooked fish (salmon, tuna, herring, mackerel, squid, anchovies)

  • Illness: Infection

  • Symptoms: Tickling sensation in throat to acute abdominal pain and nausea

  • Transmission: Consumption of raw or undercooked fish

  • Control: Proper cooking of fish, commercial freezing of fish to be consumed raw









Ascaris lumbricoides

  • Parasite: Nematode

  • Source: Human intestines, insufficiently treated sewage-fertilizer

  • Illness: Infection

  • Symptoms: Vague digestive tract discomfort, migration of nematode into throat/mouth/nose

  • Transmission: Infected food handlers, sewage fertilized fruits and vegetables

  • Control: Good sanitation, employee hygiene, proper treatment of sewage used for fertilizer



Pseudoterranova dicepiens

  • Parasite: Nematode (codworm)

  • Source: Raw or undercooked fish (cod, pollock, haddock)

  • Illness: Infection

  • Symptoms: Tickling sensation in throat to acute abdominal pain and nausea

  • Transmission: Consumption of raw or undercooked fish

  • Control: Proper cooking of fish, commercial freezing of fish to be consumed raw



Trichinella spiralis

  • Parasite: Nematode

  • Source: Pork and bear meat

  • Illness: Infection (Trichinosis)

  • Symptoms: Fever, muscle soreness, pain and swelling around the eyes. Chest pain may be experienced since the parasite may become imbedded in the diaphragm.

  • Transmission: Raw or improperly cooked infected pork or bear meat

  • Control: Thoroughly cook pork and other potentially infected meats, cook garbage fed to hogs, avoid cross-contamination of beef with pork



Diphyllobothrium latum

  • Parasite: Tapeworm

  • Source: Raw freshwater or anadromous fish

  • Illness: Infection

  • Symptoms: Abdominal distention, flatulence, intermittent abdominal cramping and diarrhea.

  • Transmission: Consumption of raw or undercooked fish

  • Control: Proper cooking of fish







Taenia solium, T. saginata

  • Parasite: Tapeworm (T. solium, pork tapeworm; T. Saginata, beef tapeworm)

  • Source: Swine or beef

  • Illness: Infection; worms attach to lining of small intestine and can grow large enough to block the intestinal tract

  • Symptoms: Nausea, epigastric fullness, and vomiting. Central nervous system disorders may arise in intermediate hosts of T. solium

  • Transmission: Raw or improperly cooked infected pork or beef

  • Control: Proper cooking of pork and beef



Cryptosporidium parvum

  • Parasite: Protozoa

  • Source: Cows, goats, sheep, deer, elk

  • Illness: Infection (intestinal, tracheal, or pulmonary cryptosporidiosis)

  • Symptoms: Intestinal - severe watery diarrhea or asymptomatic; pulmonary and tracheal - coughing and low-grade fever

  • Transmission: Contaminated food handler, person-to-person, contaminated water supplies, salad vegetables fertilized with manure

  • Control: Personal hygiene, prohibit fertilizing salad vegetables with manure, boil or filter contaminated water



Entamoeba histolytica

  • Parasite: Protozoa

  • Source: Intestinal tract of humans and primates

  • Illness: Infection

  • Symptoms: 1) none, 2) vague gastrointestinal distress, or 3) dysentery

  • Transmission: Fecal contamination of drinking water and foods, person-to-person, infected food handlers

  • Control: Good sanitation, employee hygiene



Giardia lamblia

  • Parasite: Protozoa

  • Source: Domestic and wild animals

  • Illness: Infection

  • Symptoms: Diarrhea (the most common cause of non-bacterial diarrhea in North America)

  • Transmission: Contaminated water, infected food handlers, contaminated vegetables eaten raw

  • Control: Water treatment, good sanitation, employee hygiene, good food handling practices







Types of Naturally Occurring Chemical Hazards

  • Mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin)

  • Scombrotoxin

  • Ciguatoxin

  • Shellfish toxins

    • Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)
    • Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP)
    • Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP)
    • Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)/Domoic Acid
  • Other marine toxins

    • Gempylotoxin
    • Tetrodotoxin


Scombrotoxin (Histamine)

  • Toxin: Histamine

  • Source: Improperly handled (time/temperature abuse) mahi mahi, tuna, bluefish, sardines, amberjack, mackerel

  • Range: Worldwide

  • Symptoms: Metallic or peppery taste, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, swelling and flushing of face, headache, dizziness, heart palpitations, hives, rapid and weak pulse, thirst, difficulty swallowing

  • Control: Proper chilling and temperature control after capture

  • FDA Guideline: 50 ppm histamine in raw, frozen tuna and mahi mahi; canned tuna; and related species



Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

  • Toxin: Ciguatoxins (4 toxins)

  • Source: Certain species of tropical and subtropical fish feeding on algae (Gambierdiscus spp.)

  • Range: Tropical and subtropical waters worldwide

  • Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, abnormal or impaired skin sensations, vertigo, lack of muscle coordination, cold/hot sensation reversal, muscular pain and itching

  • Control: No tests available; obtain fish from safe harvest areas

  • FDA Guideline: None established



Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

  • Toxin: Saxitoxins (18 toxins)

  • Source: Contaminated molluscan shellfish feeding on algae (Alexandrium, Pyrodinium, Gymnodinium spp.)

  • Range: Tropical to temperate waters worldwide

  • Symptoms: Numbness and burning or tingling sensation of lips and tongue spreading to face and fingertips, general lack of muscle coordination in arms, legs, neck

  • Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest

  • FDA Guideline: 0.8 ppm saxitoxin equivalent (80ug/100g) in all fish



Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning

  • Toxin: Okadaic acid and its derivatives

  • Source: Molluscan shellfish feeding on algae (Dinophysis and Prorocentrum spp.)

  • Range: Japan, southeast Asia, Scandinavia, western Europe, Chile, New Zealand, eastern Canada

  • Symptoms: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, cramps

  • Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest

  • FDA Guideline: 0.2 ppm okadaic acid plus 35-methyl okadaic acid (DXT 1) in all fish



Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

  • Toxin: Brevetoxins (3 toxins)

  • Source: Molluscan shellfish feeding on algae (Gymnodinium breve)

  • Range: Gulf of Mexico and southern Atlantic coast in U.S. New Zealand

  • Symptoms: Tingling of the face and spreading to other parts of the body, cold/hot sensation reversal dilation of pupils, feeling of inebriation

  • Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest

  • FDA Guideline: 0.8 ppm brevetoxin-2 equivalent (20 mouse units/100g) in clams, mussels and oysters



Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

  • Toxin: Domoic acid

  • Source: Molluscan shellfish (mussels) feeding on algae (Pseudonitzschia spp.), viscera of Dungeness crab and anchovies

  • Range: Northeast and northwest coasts of North America

  • Symptoms: Intestinal distress, facial grimace or chewing motion, short-term memory loss, difficulty breathing

  • Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest

  • FDA Guideline: 20 ppm domoic acid in all fish; 30 ppm domoic acid in viscera of Dungeness crab



Gempylotoxin

  • Toxin: Oil contained in the flesh and bones of specific species

  • Source: Gemplids, escolars or pelagic mackerels (escolar; oilfish, castor oil fish or purgative fish; snek)

  • Range: Almost worldwide

  • Symptoms: Diarrhea, generally without pain or cramping

  • Control: Avoid specific fish species

  • FDA Guideline: Escolar should not be imported



Tetrodotoxin

  • Toxin: Tetrodotoxin

  • Source: About 80 species of puffer fish, blowfish or fugu

  • Range: Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans

  • Symptoms: Numbness and tingling of the mouth, weakness, paralysis, decreased blood pressure, quickened and weakened pulse. Death can occur within 30 minutes.

  • Control: Do not eat puffer fish or avoid improperly prepared pufferfish

  • FDA Guideline: Puffer fish may not be imported except under strict certification requirements and specific authorization from FDA



Tetramine

  • Toxin: Tetramine

  • Source: Salivary gland of whelk (Neptunia spp.)

  • Range: Primarily the Sea of Japan

  • Symptoms: Intense headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting

  • Control: Remove salivary glands before consumption

  • FDA Guideline: Remove the salivary glands of Neptunia spp.





Add document to your blog or website
Реклама:

Similar:

Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr iconI. bacterial phylogeny the three domains: bacteria, archaea & eukarya the bacteria (eubacteria)

Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr iconAccount 6100 fund node gpr funds to clear [tree share gpr to clear]

Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr iconPurpose: The purpose of this activity is for students to discover that bacteria can be found everywhere. Most bacteria are beneficial and help maintain the environment by degrading waste materials, man-made chemicals, and pollutants.

Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr iconIsogamy equal-sized motile gametes

Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr iconRequests: 1 authority to increase the project budget of the Middleton Library Renovation project by $93,600 Agency Funds, non-gpr, for a revised total project cost of $591,200 Agency Funds, non-gpr

Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr iconGametophyte generation begins with a spore

Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr icon1. Standard Operating Procedure for the activity: Botulinum Toxin Type a dilution

Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr iconRhizopogon Spore Longevity in Tomales Pt soil Better living through bioassays

Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr iconMetal cutting and forming Plastics processing

Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile gpr iconSome species of fungi have been found to establish persistent spore banks in a wide variety of environments and soil types

Place this button on your site:
Documents


The database is protected by copyright ©edu.docdat.com 2000-2013

send message
Documents